R. Frances, Selling Sex: A Hidden History of Prostitution, UNSW Press, 2007.







R. Frances, White Slaves/White Australia: Prostitution and the Making of Australian Society, History Council of New South Wales, 2004.







B.Scates and R.Frances, Women and the Great War, Cambridge University Press, Melbourne, 1997.






R.Frances, The Politics of Work in Victoria, 1880-1940, Sydney, Cambridge University Press, March 1993.

‘This is an exemplary study … a landmark in the literature on the work process.’

Stuart Macintyre, Ernest Scott Professor History, University of Melbourne.

‘This excellent book represents the results of a truly extensive amount of original research in a clear, intelligent and analytical way. It helps to establish Australian women’s history and work history more generally on a much higher level of knowledge and analysis than before.’

Ann Curthoys, Manning Clark Professor of History, Australian National University.


R.Frances and B.Scates,  Women at Work from the Gold Rushes to World War Two, Melbourne, Cambridge University Press, 1992.







Edited Books

R.Frances and B.Scates (eds), Women, Work and the Labour Movement in Australia and Aotearoa/New Zealand, (Special Issue of Labour History, November, 1991) Sydney, Australian Society for the Study of Labour History, 1991.






R.Frances and B.Scates (eds), The Murdoch Ethos, Murdoch, Murdoch University, 1989.


Contributions to Books

  • R.Frances, Prostitution: the Age of Empires, in Chiara Beccalossi and Ivan Crozier (eds), A Cultural History of Sexualityvol. 5: In the Age of Empire, Berg Books, Oxford and New York, 2011, pp.145-171.
  • R.Frances, Traversing Margins, Connecting Worlds, in Alan Mayne and Stephen Atkinson (eds), Outside Country: Histories of Inland Australia, Wakefield Press, Adelaide, 2011, pp. 199-224.
  • R.Frances, Printing Workers, 1788-1890, in W.Kirsop and E.Webby (eds), The History of the Book in Australia, Vol. 1, forthcoming.
  • R. Frances, ‘Law, James Lindsay Gordon (1881 – 1963)’, i, Supplementary Volume, Melbourne University Press, 2005, pp 228-229
  • R. Frances, Commentary: Changes in the Nature of Work and Employment Relations: An Historical Perspective, in R.Callus and R.Lansbury (eds), Working Futures: The Changing Nature of Work and Employment Relations in Australia, Federation Press, 2002, pp.46-50.
  • R. Frances, Gender, Federation and Working Life, in G. Patmore and M.Hearne (eds) Working the Nation: Working Life and Federation, 1890-1914, Pluto Press, Sydney, 2001, pp. 32-47.
  • R. Frances, Printing Workers, 1890-1940, in M.Lyons and J.Arnold (eds), A History of the Book in Australia, 1891-1945: A National Culture in a Colonised Market, Queensland University Press, St. Lucia, 2001, pp.116-126.
  • R. Frances, Prostitution, in G. Davison, J. Hirst and S. Macintyre (eds), The Oxford Companion to Australian History, Melbourne, 1998, pp.530-1.
  • R. Frances, A History of Female Prostitution in Australia, in R. Perkins,, (eds) Sex Work and Sex Workers in Australia, Kensington, UNSW Press, 1994, pp.27-52.
  • R. Frances, Fringe History, in B. Attwood (ed.), Labour Histories, Clayton, Monash University History Series, 1994, pp.51-64.
  • R. Frances, B. Scates and A. McGrath, Broken Silences?: Aboriginal Workers and Labour Historians’, in Terry Irving (ed.), Challenges to Labour History, Kensington, UNSW Press, 1994, pp.189-211.
  • R.Frances, May and Bob Brodney, in J.Ritchie (ed), Australian Dictionary of Biography, Melbourne University Press, Melbourne, 1993.
  • R.Frances, Shifting Barriers: Twentieth century women’s labour patterns, in Kay Saunders and Raymond Evans (eds), Gender Relations in Australia: Domination and Negotiation, Sydney, Harcourt, Brace and Jovanovich, 1992, pp. 246-265.
  • R.Frances, Writing a Gendered Labour History, in J.Martin and K.Taylor (eds), Culture and the Labour Movement, Palmerston North, Dunmore Press, 1991, pp.62-76.
  • R.Frances and B.Scates, Editorial, in R.Frances and B.Scates (eds), Women, Work and the Labour Movement in Australia and Aotearoa/New Zealand, Sydney, Australian Society for the Study of Labour History, 1991, pp.vii-x.
  • R.Frances, Gender, History and Industrial Relations, in G.Patmore (ed), History and Industrial Relations, Sydney, ACIRRT, 1990, pp.30-42.
  • R.Frances, Bob Solly: Union Organiser and Politician, in J.Ritchie (ed), Australian Dictionary of Biography, Vol. XII, Melbourne, Melbourne University Press, 1990.
  • R.Frances, Alfred Russell Wallis: Union Secretary and Industrial Relations Commissioner, in J.Ritchie (ed),Australian Dictionary of Biography, Vol. XII, Melbourne, Melbourne University Press, 1990.
  • R.Frances and B.Scates, Editorial, in R.Frances and B.Scates (eds), The Murdoch Ethos, Murdoch, Murdoch University, 1989, pp.2-8.
  • R.Frances and B.Scates, Unmasking the Monument:: the Other Side of the Pioneer Myth, in R.Frances and B.Scates (eds), The Murdoch Ethos, Murdoch, Murdoch University, 1989, pp.221-245.
  • R.Frances, Never Done But Always Done Down: Paid and Unpaid Labour in Australia 1788-1988, in V.Burgmann and J.Lee (eds), Making a Life: A People’s History of Australia, Melbourne, McPhee Gribble, 1988, pp.110-125.
  • R.Frances, The Victorian Clothing and Boot Trades, 1850-1940, in E.Willis (ed), Technology and the Labour Process: Australian Case Studies, Sydney, Allen and Unwin, 1988, pp.173-208.
  • R.Frances, Harrison Ord: Public Servant, in G.Serle (ed), Australian Dictionary of Biography, Vol.XI, Melbourne University Press, 1988.
  • R.Davidson (now Frances), Dealing with the “Social Evil”: prostitutes and police in Western Australia, 1895-1924, in K.Daniels (ed), So Much Hard Work: Prostitution in Australian History, Sydney, Fontana/Collins, 1984, pp.162-191.
  • R.Davidson (now Frances), “As good a bloody woman as any other bloody woman …”: Prostitutes in Western Australia, 1895-1939, in Patricia Crawford (ed), Exploring Women’s Past, Melbourne, Sisters Publishing Co., 1983. Republished by George Allen and Unwin, Sydney, 1985, pp.173-208.


Articles & Papers in Academic Journals

  • R.Frances, ‘Green demons: Irish-Catholics and Muslims in Australian history’, Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations, vol. 22, no. 4, 2011, pp. 443-450
  • R. Frances and M. Nolan, ‘Gender and the Trans-Tasman World of Labour: Transnational and Comparative Histories’, Labour History, no. 95, November 2008, pp.25-42.
  • R.Frances and J.Kimber, ‘”Joy”, Memorialisation and the Limits of Tolerance’, Public History Review, vol. 15, 2008
  • R. Frances and A. Gray, ‘‘Unsatisfactory, discriminatory, unjust and inviting corruption’: Feminists and the decriminalisation of street prostitution in New South Wales, Australian Feminist Studies, vol. 22, no. 53, July 2007 , pp. 307 – 324.
  • R. Frances, White Slaves/White Australia: prostitution and the making of Australian society, Australian Feminist Studies, vol. 19, no. 44, July 2004, pp. 185-200.
  • S.Adams and R. Frances, ‘Lifting the veil’: the representation of sex work in Australian museums and galleries’,Labour History, no. 85, November 2003, pp.47-64.
  • R.Frances, ‘Confessions of a promiscuous researcher: Inaugural Friends of the Noel Butlin Archives Annual Lecture’, Labour History, no. 83, November 2002, pp.195-204.
  • R. Frances, One hundred years of women’s wage-fixing, Journal of Interdisciplinary Gender Studies, vol. 5, no. 2, December 2000, pp. 84-93.
  • R. Frances, White Australia and the White Slave Traffic: Gender, race and citizenship, International Review of Social History, no. 44, 1999, Supplement, pp. 101-122.
  • R.Frances, Gender and Labour Markets, Journal of Industrial Relations, September, 1998, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 401-408.
  • R.Frances, Australian Prostitution Since World War II, Australian Studies, (London), November 1996, pp.130-140.
  • R. Frances, J. Kealey and J. Sangster, Women’s Work in Australia and Canada, 1880-1980, Labour History, no. 71 and Labour/Le Travail, (Toronto) no. 38, Fall 1996, pp. 54-89 (I contributed the Australian material for this article while the two other authors jointly contributed the Canadian).
  • R. Frances, Australian Prostitution in International Perspective, Australian Historical Studies, No. 106, April 1996, pp. 127-141.
  • R.Frances and B.Scates, Is Labour History Dead? The Verdict in 1992, Australian Historical Studies, no. 100, April 1993, pp.470-482.
  • R.Frances, Women, Work and Technology, Arena, No.96, (1991), p.173-6.
  • R.Frances, Marginal Matters: Gender, Skill, Unions and the Commonwealth Arbitration Court – A Case Study of the Australian Printing Industries, 1925-1937, Labour History, No.61, (November 1991), pp.17-29.
  • R.Frances and B.Scates, Honouring the Aboriginal Dead, Arena, No.86, (Autumn 1989), pp.32-51.
  • R.Frances, Celebrations of Community: Murals and their Messages, in Studies in Western Australian History, No. X (December 1988), pp.121-7.
  • R.Frances, Christianity on the Coalfields: a Case Study of Collie in the Great Depression, Studies in Western Australian History, No.IX, (October 1987), pp.115-126.
  • R.Frances, “No More Amazons”: Gender and Work Process in the Victorian Clothing Industry, 1890-1939,Labour History, No.50 (May 1986), pp.95-112 (Special commemorative edition of the journal devoted to the ‘new labour history’).
  • R.Frances, Comrades or Doormats? Women in Coalmining Communities, Lilith, Vol. 1, No.2, (Winter 1985), pp.77-86.
  • R.Frances, M.Roper and B.Scates, What Rough Beast? A Review Article, Journal of Australian Studies, No. 15, (November 1984), pp.72-79.



Research Interests

Australian social and cultural history

  • Women’s and gender history
  • Labour history
  • History of war
  • Comparative and transnational history

Current Research Projects

  • ‘A History Anzac Day at Home and Abroad’, a collaborative ARC-funded project involving partners across Australia, New Zealand, Turkey, France and the UK
  • ‘Selling Sex in the City: A Global and Comparative History of Prostitution’, a collaborative project coordinated by the International Institute for Social History in Amsterdam.

Professor Rae Frances

As Dean of the Faculty of Arts, I extend a very warm welcome to you and invite you to take some time to explore our challenging and exciting programs. We offer both first (or undergraduate) degrees as well as a range of postgraduate coursework programs and research degrees. At Monash Arts we are committed to providing you not just with an excellent academic education but also with an enjoyable educational experience that combines intellectual stimulation with social interaction and engagement with the wider world.

Our large and diverse Faculty is particularly strong in the humanities, performing arts, languages and social sciences, and encourages the development of cutting-edge studies that operate at the intersection of traditional academic disciplines.

You will find that our courses are rigorous and stimulating, preparing you for further study, or for a career in the global economy.

The Monash Arts community is spread across our Australian and overseas campuses, and includes distance education students across the nation and around the world.

We welcome international and study abroad students from many nations; international and Australian students mix in our classes, sharing experiences, understandings and knowledge, and forging friendships. Ours is a vibrant community where differences are celebrated and our students are encouraged to become humane, tolerant and active citizens.

You can enrol in a single or double degree, or take Arts subjects as electives in a non-Arts degree. We also encourage the very best Arts graduates from Monash and around the world to apply for entry to our Honours year and postgraduate programs.

I invite you to consider joining the Monash Arts global community.

Find out more about Monash Arts


Raelene Frances is Professor of History and Dean of Arts at Monash University. She has published on the history of work, women’s history, Aboriginal/European contact history, religious and community history and has also co-edited several collections of essays on Australian and New Zealand history.

Her books include The Politics of Work, which won the Australian Historical Association’s Hancock Prize, Women and the Great War (co-authored with Bruce Scates), which won the New South Wales Premier’s History Prize and Selling Sex: A Hidden History of Prostitution, which was short-listed for the Ernest Scott History Prize.

Rae Frances has taught Australian history, women’s studies, New Zealand history and Australian studies at universities in Melbourne, Perth and Auckland. She is the recipient of numerous teaching awards, including the Australian Award for University Teaching which she shared with her colleague, Bruce Scates. She has been President of the UNSW Branch of the National Tertiary Education Union, a member of UNSW Council and was Head of the School of History at the University of New South Wales before taking up the position of Dean of Arts at Monash in January 2007. She is a former Board member of the Australasian Council of Deans of Arts, Social Sciences and Humanities and the Council for the Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences and is currently a member of the Council of the National Museum of Australia. She is a Fellow of the Academy of Social Sciences in Australia and Chair of the Australian Intercultural Society Advisory Board.